J O U R N A L 

It is never too late to be what you ought to have been. George Eliot


Canada West 1841–1867  (Upper Canada 1791–1841, Ontario, 1867–)

Trumpeting the books

Muriel Kuchison: Minsos has written a most thoughtful, well-researched, descriptive, entertaining, pre-Confederation Canadian historical novel. In Charter, the third book in her Mohawk trilogy, she explores the struggle between the Indigenous peoples and the land-seeking settlers. She documents and contrasts the competing interests of the affluent, and often corrupt lives of those who are selling the… Read more …

Sky Walker Tehawennihárhos: CHARTER

Canadian folkways lean on immigrants’ and Indigenous’ stories. “I can give her no greater power than she has already,’ said the woman; ‘Don’t you see how strong that is? How men and animals are obliged to serve her, and how well she has got through the world, barefooted as she is. She cannot receive any… Read more …

The Canadian Horse

In the Mohawk trilogy Cap’n [de Cap] and Poco are Canadians. Squire Tehawennihárhos Davis purchases the horses in Reach Township and brings them to Gould’s lumber mill in Uxbridge. He surrenders the valiant Poco to the Fergusons. Jennet learns fast and proves to be an accomplished rider. Squire never relinquishes his horse, Cap’n, who is descended from… Read more …

The Markham Gang, 1845-46

“Gang members took an oath of secrecy. They vowed to support each other in any way possible. They pledged to provide alibis in case they were arrested, and to back each other in court. This was a homegrown, nineteenth century Canadian ‘Mafia,’ a ‘mob,’ one of the earliest known cases of organized crime in British… Read more …

Late Loyalists and the Markham Gang of Ontario

From Wikipedia: “The Markham Gang was a notorious criminal organization located primarily in Ontario, Canada, in the middle of the 19th century. Evolving from organizations founded to support the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837, the Markham Gang used its private communications network of couriers across what was then Canada West to build a criminal empire that spread into neighbouring states. Like the organization that spawned… Read more …

Grand River Saga

For a Canadian story read the Mohawk Trilogy It’s all about the characters. Struggling outliers have run-ins with their wild environs. They dodge lawless American and European settlers. Protagonists are helpless to stop the dirty deeds of rapacious land speculators. Characters can hardly stand up to let alone push back against the people who take… Read more …

Death of Huronia. Arrival of United Empire Loyalists (1784). Jennet’s Uxbridge

“When the first white settlers arrived in Pickering and Whitby, Uxbridge and Reach, nothing of two hundred years of Huron, Iroquois and French occupation remained. Only the Mississauga ‘stood in the way’.” Leo A Johnson Disease and civil war smash and forever destroy Huron’s great civilization covering the upper country–variously Québec, Upper Canada, Canada West,… Read more …

AS IT WAS IN THE BEGINNING by E Pauline Johnson

Johnson’s tale (and her performance of it) would be grist for a Kent Monkman satirical painting or a Quentin Tarrentino revenge film.          The stage performance They account for it by the fact that I am a Redskin, but I am something else, too–I am a woman. I remember the first time I saw him…. Read more …

First Nations lose promised territory in the WAR of 1812-14

“In life, Tecumseh fought for the survival and continued sovereignty of the Shawnee people. Born in the Ohio Country in 1768 and killed on October 5, 1813, near Moraviantown, Upper Canada, he campaigned for a confederacy of Indigenous nations. He urged Aboriginal leaders, from the Great Lakes to Georgia, to affirm pan-tribal ownership of the… Read more …