Sara Jeannette Duncan: There was nearly always a lacrosse match on the Queen’s Birthday. 

Kent Monkman – Ojibwe lacrosse player


Canada West 1841–1867  (Upper Canada 1791–1841, Ontario, 1867–)

First Nations lose promised territory in the WAR of 1812-14

“In life, Tecumseh fought for the survival and continued sovereignty of the Shawnee people. Born in the Ohio Country in 1768 and killed on October 5, 1813, near Moraviantown, Upper Canada, he campaigned for a confederacy of Indigenous nations. He urged Aboriginal leaders, from the Great Lakes to Georgia, to affirm pan-tribal ownership of the… Read more …

Trumpeting the Mohawk trilogy

Thanks and boundless appreciation for support and kindness go to Fay Boer, Lesley Clarke, Kathy van Denderen, Dianne Gillespie, Jennifer Gobeil, Anita Jenkins, Ove Minsos, Laraine Orthlieb, and Sally Williams.  Lillian Brown: Despite being set over a century ago, [Charter] tackles the intricacies of gender inequality and social relationships in a relatable manner, tying the struggles… Read more …

Devil Joseph Brant

“Brant acted as a tireless negotiator for the Six Nations to control their land without crown oversight . . .. He used British fears of his dealings with the Americans and the French to extract concessions. His conflicts with British administrators in Canada regarding tribal land claims were exacerbated by his relations with the American… Read more …

Ruthven Park, Indiana, Ontario

Ruthven Park’s founder is David Thompson. The lie Ruthven Park tells, through omission, is one with both a long nose (plain to see) and short legs (doesn’t withstand historical scrutiny). David Thompson 1 (1793 – 1851) is not a law-abiding person nor an honourable businessman. A bold Scot and a fascinating character, he is a… Read more …

The Grand River Navigation Company Swindle

Speaking of not paying . . . The [Grand River Navigation Company] never pays the Six Nations for non-surrendered expropriated land nor returns a single penny of investment but most remarkable is this turnaround: the canal company is forever in need of cash infusions and uses up Six Nations’ capital monies in fifteen years. The Navigation wrings so… Read more …

Joseph Brant, his mansion, and words from his slave, Sophia Pooley

There is much to love in James Paxton’s Joseph Brant and his world: 18th century Mohawk warrior and statesman (2008) – exceptional writing and heart-rending illustrations and even the book’s silky pages. More to love is Paxton’s thesis: Joseph Brant is an 18th century Mohawk warrior and Pine Tree Chief who understands as well as any modern Canadian the necessity… Read more …

Huronia and the plague(s)

“After first contacts with Europeans and Africans, some believe that the deaths of 90–95% of the native population of the New World was caused by Old World diseases. It is suspected that smallpox was the chief culprit and responsible for killing nearly all of the native inhabitants of the Americas. For more than 200 years,… Read more …

United Empire Loyalists versus late loyalists

Summary: The history of Canada provides a good example of a 180° shift in hegemonic manners, from republican to monarchist. Anti-American rhetoric, a manner so well appreciated in English-speaking Canada, has its early beginnings in loyalty. Loyalty-to-the-Crown is an English-Canadian manner, which is quickly adopted and adapted to a new circumstance – often allowing, sans… Read more …