Carolinian Forest and the Grand River


In 1791 after the American rebellion and the ensuing flood of displaced persons arrive into the upper country, Great Britain took it upon itself to divide Quebec into Lower and Upper Canada. Upper Canada, which the British claimed but did not own and did not conquer – actually Upper Canada was the territories-depending-thereon part of Quebec –  held a treasure. Embedded in the southern part of the province was woodland. A section of the colossal Carolinian forest tipped as far north as Toronto and ran through the Carolinas and dipped as far south as Savannah. It encompassed Tinaatoua or the Grand River, which marked its western beginning and connected the north and south of the Great Lakes.

In variety and abundance the arboreal wilderness must have been breathtaking. There were chestnut, honey locust, nannyberry, sassafras, wild crabapple, willow, witch hazel, black maple, walnut, sweet birch, staghound sumac, beechnut, shagbark hickory, blue ash, sycamore and white pine trees and many more varieties but perhaps because of the work of clearing them and stumping them the inconvenience to Europeans must have been equally breathtaking. Nonetheless it took a mere fifty years for the magnificent woodland to give way to meadows, grassland, scrub oak and macadamized roads. Forest gave way to concrete. Towns and cities popped up. And farm after farm after farm.

American sycamore, photo credit, JJMK

Sky Walker  Tehawennihárhos and the Battle of Vinegar Hill, p367.

Stories that feature Carolinian Forest and the Grand River

Trumpeting the Mohawk trilogy

Lillian Brown: Despite being set over a century ago, [Charter] tackles the intricacies of gender inequality and social relationships in a relatable manner, tying the struggles of its characters to contemporary issues. (Sky Walker Tehawennihárhos Charter) Jane Ainslie: Charter should find a forever home with Canadians. (Sky Walker Tehawennihárhos Charter) Janine Brodie: Brilliant! A young Mohawk’s journey to find... Read more …

The Grand River Navigation Company Swindle

Speaking of not paying . . . The [Grand River Navigation Company] never pays the Six Nations for non-surrendered expropriated land nor returns a single penny of investment but most remarkable is this turnaround: the company is forever in need of cash infusions and uses up Six Nations’ capital monies in fifteen years. The Navigation wrings so much out... Read more …


BOOKLEA! Davis Hamlet or Davisville is on the farm of Mohawk Chief Thomas Tehonwawenkaragwen Davis. Currently the site of Laurier University and Professor Gary Warrick’s archaeological dig, Davisville is situated northwest of Ohsweken and Brantford, and south of Paris. Davisville is there some time before the European villages of Brantford or Paris exist. And before Davisville,... Read more …

The Markham Gang Ontario

“Gang members took an oath of secrecy. They vowed to support each other in any way possible. They pledged to provide alibis in case they were arrested, and to back each other in court. This was a homegrown, nineteenth century Canadian ‘Mafia,’ a ‘mob,’ one of the earliest known cases of organized crime in British... Read more …

Joseph Thayendanegea Brant by Gilbert Stuart sells for $7.5 million

Joseph Thayendanegea Brant (and his Volunteers) and John Butler (and his Rangers) pretty much save Canada/British North America for the Crown during American revolution. Artistic and/or historical worth to Canada of Gilbert Stuart‘s portrait of Thayendanegea is priceless. If value were a cow the painting would jump over the silvery moon. The Haudenosaunee’s Mohawk Pine Tree Chief wears... Read more …